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Pathophysiology
Oncology Examination - Physiopedia Oncology Examination Using the International Classification Framework Model for Assessment in Oncology Rehabilitation by Gilchrist LS

Oncology is the branch of medicine that involves the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and study of cancer. Cancer describes the abnormal growth of cells that results in a large mass known as a tumour. Malignant tumours can spread into and invade surrounding tissues and in some cases the cells can break off and travel to other areas of the body, which is known as metatstasis. Benign tumours do not invade surrounding tissues and do not continue to grow once they have been removed. The regulation of cells is controlled by genetics and it takes changes to genes to create abnormal cancerous cells. Genetic changes can be due to either the loss or gain of chromosomes through mitosis (the process of cell duplication) or due to mutations, changes in the nucleotide sequence of genomic DNA.

There are several causes of cancer, the most common being genetic mutations due to environmental and lifestyle factors, which account for between 90-95% of cases. The remaining are due to inherited genetics[5]. There are many known environmental factors that increase the risk of developing cancer:

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